Mega Projects

The Ecological Restoration Project Case of Bauxite Mines in Amazon Rainforest
The ecological restoration of abandoned mines in the Amazon Rainforest region of Brazil is a challenging task. It is necessary to integrate existing ecological restoration technologies, adopt ecological restoration strategies suitable for specific site conditions, and consider many aspects including biodiversity of the landscape. Due to inadequate grasp of basic information such as endemic native tree species in the forest before destruction, and insufficient understanding of the ecological knowledge required to make an effective restoration plan, many tropical rainforest ecological restoration works are hindered during the restoration process. But the rainforest restoration plan implemented by the mining company Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN) in Trombeats , Para in the Central Amazon in the 1980s was a successful case. This plan aims to use various methods as much as possible to explore the most suitable way to restore the ecological level of the damaged site after mining to the level before or near the destruction. Only in this way can the integrity and ecological diversity of tropical forests be protected, and the sustainable development and use of animal and plant resources be guaranteed.
# Name Photos Introduction
1 Mineracao Rio do Norte S.A.
# Time Title Contents
1 1979 Forest Restoration Plan MRN implemented a series of forest restoration plans aimed at restoring damaged vegetation at a recovery rate of 100ha per year
Recovery Method Method Description Acreage Time
Method of mixed planting of native tree species (MNS) Mixed planting of 70 native tree species at different succession stages 100 ha 1985
Method of mixed planting of native tree species (failed) It is the same as the method of mixed planting of native tree species , but the survival rate of trees (lower than 25%) is low due to inappropriate site preliminary treatment, especially the insufficient improvement of the surface soil. Less than 0.1 ha 1985
Method of mixed planting of economic tree species Planting some economic tree species such as eucalyptus. 2.0ha 1987
Direct seeding method 48 kinds of trees are planted in a mixed manner, which mainly includes native fast-growing tree species,which are cut to a height of 40 cm to promote their germination 17ha 1986
Natural restoration method It mainly relies on the seeds in the top soil for restoration. A total of 4 sample plots, covering 0.3ha to 1.0 ha 1984-1987
Compared with the mixed planting of native tree species, some of the less expensive restoration methods have greater biological yields, but they are worse at restoring forest biological diversity. At present, the ecological restoration practices of the bauxite mines in Amazon Rainforest can achieve the long-term goal of restoring waste mines to the Amazon rainforest.
# Contents Photos
1 The method of mixed planting of native tree species has become the standard method of forest ecological restoration at mining sites, which includes site preliminary treatment and mixed planting of 80-100 native tree species, costing approximately $ 2,500 / ha.

Project Photos
# Contents Photos
1 Ecology of the Amazon rainforest
2 Amazon Conservation: How to Save the Amazon Rainforest
3 Conservation through Education in the Amazon Rainforest

[1] John A Parrotta, Oliver H Knowles. Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon[J]. 2001,17(2-3):219-239.

[2] John A. Parrotta, Oliver H. Knowles. Restoration of Tropical Moist Forests on Bauxite-Mined Lands in the Brazilian Amazon[J]. Restoration Ecology, 1999,7(2):103-116.

[3] John A Parrotta, Oliver Henry Knowles, Joseph M Wunderle Jr. Development of floristic diversity in 10-year-old restoration forests on a bauxite mined site in Amazonia[J]. For.ecol.manage, 1997,99(1-2):0-42.

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